First, the traditional information direction processing should be introduce and with their possible jobs and restriction. Second, this paper will show the existing tools and techniques which are applied in building undertaking information direction. Furthermore, this literature position will concentrate on Building Information Modelling and 4D Modelling in undertaking information direction with its benefits and its barriers. In add-on, to place which tool or techniques are suited for little, medium and big building undertaking based on comparing of these tools and techniques. Finally, based on Chinese building contents, to place which tools and techniques are appropriate applied in China.
2. Undertaking INFORMATION MANAGEMENY
Undertaking Information direction ( PIM ) can be defined as a system for aggregation, co-ordinate, managing, storage and disseminate of building undertakings information ( Winch, 2002, pp.339-341 ; Lester, 2007 ) . The cardinal rules of PIM is that based on specific information to organize communicating and to guarantee accurate and current undertaking information is available at the right clip in the right format to the right individual. The benefits of information direction a improve efficiency, effectivity and cut down hazard eventuality in the whole undertaking procedure.
2.1 Undertaking Information Flow
Undertaking information relates to the undertaking life rhythm, involves undertaking briefing phase, design phase, be aftering phase and executing phase ( Winch, 2002, pp.186-188 ) .
The figure 2.1 shows the general undertaking procedure in building industry. In the briefing phase ( A & A ; B ) the clients identified their thoughts / demand for the undertaking and guarantee the feasibleness. The information procedure in this phase is iterative and divergent, to do a solution for briefing jobs. Second, during the design phase ( C ) , design squads to be after and bring forth design information. The effect of design development is to bring forth drawings, specifications and measures measure for the following phase. In this phase, information still iterative around briefing phase information, but concentrate to measure and choose solution to plan job to accomplish a comprehensive description of the undertaking relevant information. Third, during the building phase ( D ) , the information direction becomes more complexly. Information in this phase affect relevant drawings, specifications, times, costs, connexion with clients and providers, site installations, proficient and fiscal studies, meeting and conversation records, and other informations. Information processing becomes common than design phase. Contactors need to tie in with clients, interior decorators, subcontractors and providers to guarantee all information are accurate and easiness acquisition, but common information still has insecurity factors for the on-site plants, such as foundation and structural plants on redesign undertaking ( Lester, 2007 ; Winch, 2002 ) .
2.2 The development of information engineerings
Techniques of information direction have been developed since the fourteenth century where graduated table proficient drawings were introduced to the industry. From this clip, traditional information engineerings were paper-based which undertaking information merely could be done by difficult transcript. However, the communicating of certain paperss may merely be sent by mail or collected from relevancy parties. Manual documentary methods in building industry play a chief function still today. This type of technique is still utilizing into communicating over the undertaking procedure. The restriction for this is that the drawings or paperss are non accurate. It could non modify instantly and should redraft in processing.
During the 1970s, computing machine aided design ( CAD ) engineerings had been developed a new drawing techniques which allowed drawings could be portion and applied in other stockholders on design spheres but information direction still based on traditional information methods. However, the personal computing machine ( Personal computer ) developed allows undertaking stakeholders can portion and applied in their ain computing machine, particularly the computing machine can be equipped on the site office which much improved the undertaking information originative and storage ( Winch, 2002, pp.342-343 ) .
Over the last 20 twelvemonth, information engineerings have quickly developing. There are many particulars package companies develop figure of tools to cut down undertaking 's process and better building communicating. Furthermore, the cyberspace developing allows stakeholders evaluate relevant information online without sit down together and communicating becomes convenient ( Winch, 2002, pp. 343 ) . At the same clip, there are many new specializer cognition have been introduced to the industry which brings building undertaking becomes more complexness. In add-on, fiscal, proficient, Healthy & A ; Safety, and environmental jobs of the building lead undertaking hazard becomes higher. As a consequence, there are tonss of information integrates with the undertaking processes due to information and cognition are often be modified and substituted. ( Gray & A ; Hughes, 2001, pp.2-3 ) .
Therefore, there are a figure of tools and techniques has developed and introduced to the building industry for improve undertaking information direction.
3. Existing TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR PIM
The direction of building undertaking is about direction the undertaking information. The specific tools and techniques have been developed for operation and communicating of information on building undertaking. The common proficient of PIM is Information and communicating engineerings ( ICTs ) which has been widely utilizing in the industry today. It application in building is indispensable for coevals, storage and distribution of undertaking information in calculating electronic format ( Winch, 2002, pp. 340 ) .
In this subdivision will present some typical tools and techniques for improve undertaking information direction.
3.1 CAD for design phase
Computer aided design ( CAD ) began as drafting plans for developing design certification. CAD operated original in planar ( 2D ) environment. 2D CAD allows working with a computing machine representation of geometry. The advantage of this is that interior decorator can make drawings more easy and accurate in dimension. It can supply limitless grading capablenesss. In add-on, the drawings can be portion and applied in construction, mechanical and electronic design spheres ( Maher, 2000 ) . The development extended 2D CAD into 3D CAD which allows interior decorator ciphering and stand foring 3-dimensional form and solid. There are a batch of 3D package tools available in usage today. In add-on, perspective rendition is another technique for 3D. It allows presentation that adds light beginnings and stuff belongingss into 3D theoretical account ( Maher, 2000 ) .
The chief virtue of utilizing CAD is that all drawings can be end product and input in same format which allows stakeholders can portion the design information in their ain personal computing machine.
3.2 Construction direction
The building phase can be separate into two procedures - planning and building. The techniques of these procedures are relied on traditional methods, such as Gantt chart for agenda, graphs and saloon or pie charts but translate to digital format in today ( Kymmell, 2008 ) . The typical tools for the building direction is Microsoft Office Project and Excel which allows those traditional theoretical account represent into spreadsheets, diagrams and other representation of information.
3.3 Documentary direction tools
Accord to the IT development, Email is become as the chief communicating method. The undertaking informations can be sent to other relevant stakeholders but this communicating route merely available for one to one or one to multiple stakeholders. In add-on, Email merely can bringing individual informations and can non incorporate with other informations and with deficiency of security. It is difficultly to measure the information and information ( Craig, 2006 ) .
In the recent twelvemonth, there is a new techniques has been introduced to the industry. Project extranets or calls extranets has been developed for more than 15 old ages. Extranets has been used as commercially system in the UK such as BIW Technologies and 4Projects. The extranets is likes a tool for geting and sharing undertaking informations in the internet-based driver ( Wilkinson, 2005 ; BIW, no day of the month ) . The benefits of utilizing extranets are:
Better integrative of undertaking stakeholder.
Information becomes more transparence and answerability. Because the audit trail is automatic recorded without differences and the undertaking cardinal procedures can be easy monitored.
Paper-based paperss could be replaced by electronic paperss which salvaging cost and clip for printing, copying, distribution, storage and skill relevant undertaking information.
More safety for information storage. The extranets can restrict access-authority for users.
The information can be searched and reused.
3.4 Limitation of bing tools and techniques
There are some restriction and barriers of bing tools and techniques:
The range of application for PIM tools merely concentrate on differentiate phases such as design phase and building preliminary phase, which ignore considered project direction as a integrative entity. Most of import is that few tools and techniques can be used for building phase, such as advancement, quality and cost controls.
Construction companies emphasise the utilizing of tools and techniques in different phase procedure but without considered utilizing an sole criterion for planning, agreement and direction of undertaking information ( Liu, 2005 ) .
Some building companies are weak on their ain information direction. There are many excess informations and information had been repeatedly stored in their computing machine drivers which reflect on comparative information can be portion with other parties ( Liu, 2007 ) .
Undertaking information is fragmented which can non unite all information in one system for undertaking members evaluate, discuss, estimation and knock undertaking informations and information.
Therefore, constructing information mold as a new signifier techniques can better and consummate work out the existing tools and techniques ' restrictions in undertaking information direction.
4. Building INFORMATION Modeling
5. 4D Modeling
Four-dimensional computing machine aided design ( 4D CAD ) is a new technique has been researched and applied in the field of building since 1990s. This study is an fact-finding paper, presents the development of 3D and 4D simulations the field of building foremost. The development of this technique including commercially, research and development countries are revealed. Several current 3D and 4D commercially package tools are analysed in 2nd subdivision includes two instance surveies. The benefits and restrictions of 4D are discussed. In the terminal, the study negotiations about 4D technique impacts building and the supply concatenation.
5.1 Development of Technique
The engineering of building design and planning has been developed for long clip. Due to the computing machine scientific discipline development, the traditional technique has been trended to visualization worlds from manual drawing.
5.2 4D Cad
Four-dimensional computing machine adjutant design ( 4D CAD ) is a new technique uniting with 3D theoretical accounts and building processing in another mean is clip. 2D and 3D improve building design more quality and efficient. 3D development provides the foundation for 4D CAD in the field of building direction. 4D CAD led the abstract undertaking planning can be presented straight and inventive in simulation.
In 1984, CAS Inc developed PM-Vision which used 3D theoretical account to develop a database for building ( CSA, no day of the month ) . The first developed 3D CAD theoretical accounts link to building agendas was created in 1986-87 by Bechtel and Hitachi Ltd. They developed 4D Planner package. The 4D theoretical account creates by associating the agenda to the 3D CAD theoretical account to demoing which pieces of the undertaking will be constructed in sequence ( Yerrapathruni, 2003 )
In 1990 's, 4D CAD has been progressively developed around in commercialism and research. Jacobus Technology developed and marketed a 4D simulation system called Construction Simulation Toolkit ( CST ) in 1992 ( Yerrapathruni, 2003 ) . CST allows user import CAD information from AutoCAD and Micostation uniting with agenda informations.
The Centre for Integrated Facilities Engineering ( CIFE ) of Stanford University begins academic research in 1994. CIFE started the first undertaking research in the San Mateo County Health Facility which developed 4D theoretical account to pass on in the four-year building. After the first undertaking, CIFE continued to research related to 4D theoretical accounts. CIFE plays a leader function in 4D research country. Following CIFE, the academic research started in UK and Finland.
In UK, the research undertaking of the Virtual Construction Site ( VIRCON ) which is a collaborative undertaking between University College London, Teeside University, The University of Wolverhampton and 11 building companies, was funded by UK authorities. The purpose of undertaking is to bring forth a tool allow contrivers to merchandise off the temporal sequencing of undertakings with their spacial distribution. In University of Wolverhampton, Dr. David Heesom published Technology Opportunities and Potential for The Virtual Construction Site in 2002.
In 2000 's, several commercial 4D package tools have been produced to building industry. In the following subdivision will take about the commercial package tools.
5.3 Existing Software analysis
From 2000, 4D technique has been developed rapid. There are a assorted consequences of research are published and commercially available package tools are produced such as common Point undertaking 4DTM, JetStream TimelinerTM, Revit ArchitectureTM and xD Virtual BuilderTM. All 4D technique tool can export video format files for use.
5.3.1. Common Point Project 4DTM - Common Point Int.
Common Point Project 4D was presented in 1999 by Common Point, Inc. It originated from the research activities undertaken at the Centre for Integrated Facility Engineering ( CIFE ) at Stanford University, USA ( Heesom & A ; Mahdjoubi, 2004 ) . Undertaking 4D is a building simulation package tool that links agenda activities to 3D constituents. Project 4D 's chief characteristic is 4D playback, which allows the user to sequence building issues harmonizing to a agenda for imitating building events in chronological order. Common Point developed this system in acknowledgment of the realisation that the user to better communicate, program and analyse building activities throughout the undertaking lifecycle.
The Undertaking 4D import 3D information from common industry format, such as AutoCAD ArchiCAD, Microstation and 3D MAX. The agenda informations can be imported from Primavera, SureTrak, Expedition, MS Project, Excel, comma or tab-delimited files.
However, Woolley ( 2007 ) argues that Project 4D works merely with VRML CAD theoretical accounts ( WRL and RAW file formats ) and tends to restrict it to architectural instead than engineered in building applications. In add-on, it does non let user modify the 3D theoretical accounts in the 4D system.
5.3.2. JetStream TimelinerTM - Navisworks
JetStream Timeliner is developed by Navisworks. It is enable 3D theoretical account informations to be linked with undertaking package for create 4D visual image of building agenda. This package allows user demoing all undertakings happening in the interval period, to guarantee little undertakings happening between interval points in the undertaking does non lose in 4D simulation. The package allows imports most CAD format from, such as AutoCAD ( .dwg, .dxf, .sat ) , 3D Studio ( 3ds.prj ) , SketchUp ( .skp ) and Navisoworks ( .nwd.nwf.nwc ) . The undertaking agenda package and formats supported by JetStream TimeLiner is PowerProject, MS Project and Primavera. Timeliner provides extension that allows text, site undertakings and procedure screening in simulation. The behaviour of the undertaking simulation is configurable and the show can be customized. ( Navisworks, no day of the month )
Harmonizing to Khemlani ( 2004 ) , the biggest restriction of Timeliner is perspective. The show of theoretical account is a generic geometry-based solution. The monetary value show in the web site of Timeliner is 1250 dollars. If the user want to purchase whole the JetStream bundle in sum is 8450 dollars. It is rather expensive for most building industry houses.
188.8.131.52. Revit ArchitectureTM- Autodesk
Revit Architecture was developed by Autodesk. This package based on Autodesk research that called Building Information Modelling ( BIM ) . The theory of BIM is screens geometry, spacial relationships, geographic information, measures and belongingss of edifice constituents. BIM can be used to show the full edifice lifecycle including the procedures of building and installation operation ( Wikipedia, no day of the month ) . The construct of BIM is similar with 4D. Using Revit Architecture provides user record and reappraisal full undertaking from design period to build period organizing programs, agendas, and building paperss in ocular. ( Autodesk, no day of the month )
Compare with other commercial 4D package, Revit can make 3D theoretical account in the system. Due to Autodesk strength, utilizing with Autodesk Software, Revit can provides elaborate programs and renders of lifts. However, without Autodesk Software it could import other common package. It is average that undertaking agenda informations should be created in original technique. The users ought to pass a batch of clip to understand and the package Standard individual user monetary value is up to 4000 lbs.
5.4 Benefits and hereafter
3D and 4D simulation has been used in building industry. 3D simulation is popular in architectural and structural design. Interior designer can bring forth an attractive theoretical account in item degree, utilize it to show their design and communicate with other design parties. However, 3D simulation in building direction is non utile. Most 3D package are attentive the characteristic of rendering. In existent clip simulation, it could non bring forth 3D theoretical account nexus with other building activities. To set about a successful 3D theoretical account need user use much strength in preparation and understanding package because of a batch characteristics and maps should be used in.
In long history traditional building, be aftering tools such as saloon chart and web diagrams are abstract for most people. To understand the undertaking be aftering need people analyze its and practise. Harmonizing to Fischer ( 2002 ) , 4D theoretical accounts combine 3D CAD theoretical accounts with undertaking agenda and other undertaking information to demo a ocular theoretical account for proficient and non-technical stakeholders in apprehension, analysing and pass oning a design and building agenda. In communicating of undertaking, 4D theoretical account provides a ocular simulation for all coordinators such as interior decorators, clients, contractors and builder to understand the undertaking effectual. For illustration, Walt Paradise Pier ' GC merely spent 2 yearss to understand the full undertaking sequence. By utilizing 4D, undertaking developers can measure the sequence, procedure, building methods and hazard in building undertaking. In add-on, item 3D and 4D modeling can cut down the waste of stuffs and resources. The 4D theoretical account besides back up user gauge stuffs measure and deliver clip. Finally, 4D create a platform for interior decorators and contactors to reexamine and stakeout the advancement in building.
Although 4D CAD has advantages in building direction, most 4D package tools merely simple combine with 3D theoretical account and agenda, as drama mesosphere. These package tools could non supply auxiliary map for building direction. The other maps such as cost, stuffs information, rendition, and human resource could non show in 4D theoretical account. In the practical building applications, 4D CAD must trust on complex 3D theoretical accounts, the restriction of it evidently.
4D development tendency could be including:
Better the 4D CAD exporting in same format
Reduce 3D theoretical account making clip.
Better the rendition capableness of 3D theoretical account in 4D CAD.
Integrate building cost and material information, constitutes to 5D CAD, so nD CAD system.
To better the characteristics of 4D technique need researcher in Significant geographic expedition and research. Some organisations such as CIFE and ARUP are get downing to develop 4D CAD in use in building.
6. BIM VS 4D Modeling
Everett M. Rogers ( 1962 ) classified clients as follows:
Pioneers. Those who like to be first to have the latest merchandises. These consumers predominate at the beginning of the merchandise life rhythm.
Early adoptive parents. Those who are unfastened to new thoughts, but like to wait a piece after initial launch. These consumers predominate during the growing stage of the PLC.
Early bulk. Those who buy once the merchandise is exhaustively tested and tested. These consumers predominate in the early portion of adulthood stage of PLC.
Late bulk. Those who are leery of new things, and wait until most other people already have one. These consumers predominate in the ulterior portion of the adulthood stage of PLC.
Dawdlers. Those who merely adopt new merchandises when it becomes perfectly necessary to make so. These consumers predominate in the diminution stage of PLC.
Gray, C & A ; Hughes, W ( 2001 ) Building Design Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Winch, G. M. ( 2002 ) Pull offing Construction Projects. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
Lester, E.I.A. ( 2007 ) Project Management, Planning and Control. 5th edn. Oxford: Buttcrworth-Heincmann.
Lazarus, D. & A ; Clifton, R. 2001. Pull offing Project Change: a best patterns guide. London: CIRIA
Liu, J. ( 2005 ) Construction Project Management information Developing Problems. China: Journal of Modern Information. 25 ( 11 ) . pp.202-206
Liu, J.J. ( 2007 ) How to Tighten up Project Information Management of the Building Engineering Enterprise.china: diary of Anhui Architecture. 2007 ( 6 ) . pp.230-232
Maher, M.L. ( 2000 ) Understanding practical design studios. London: Springer. Pp.48-50
Kymmell, W. ( 2008 ) Constructing information mold: planning and pull offing building undertakings with 4D CAD and simulations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wilkinson, P. ( 2005 ) Construction Collaboration Technologies: The Extranet Revolution. London: Taylor & A ; Francis.
BIW Technologies ( no day of the month ) Document Management [ online ] . [ citation on 1 January 2010 ]