Lavabo is complaining f fatigue and decided to relax by playing golf on a warm Saturday morning. After the seventh hole he experienced odyssey, tingling, and numbness in his legs. After the next hole, he experienced severe pain in his right ankle and knee. He was taken to the local medical center, where he was admitted. Lavabo rates his pain at 8 on a scale of 1-10. The physician ordered oxygen, IV fluids, and a PICA pump with morphine sulfate. Describe the pathologically that occurs in sickle cell anemia (4 points).
Sickle cell anemia is the most common form of sickle cell disease which is an inherited, autocross recessive disorder that causes an abnormal hemoglobin cell. The person with this specific disorder inherited hemoglobin S from both parents, also known as homozygous (Lewis, Drinkers, Hitchhiker, & Boucher, 2014, up. 644-647). This hemoglobin S results from the substitution of valise for glutamine acid on the B- globing chain of hemoglobin, and this ultimately causes the erythrocyte to stiffen and elongate taking a sickle shape in response to low oxygen levels (Lewis et al. 2014, up. 644-647). Due to the sickle cells elongated shape, and its stiff and sticky consistency it tends to get stuck in capillaries and vessels, and blocks blood flow to limbs and organs (Lewis et al. , 2014, up. 644-647). The major problems with sickle cell anemia is due to their sickles shape, reduced life expectancy and their ability to carry enough hemoglobin or transport it properly to the body to provide adequate oxygenation.
Therefore a person who has sickle cell anemia has a lower number of red blood cells related to the shortened cell life that dies after only 10-20 days, compared to a normal red blood cell which lives about 120 days (Lewis et al. , 2014, up. 644-647). Bone marrow is unable to keep up with the demand for new red blood cells to replace the dying ones, making a person with sickle cell anemia left in a state of constant inadequate oxygenation (Lewis et al. , 2014, up. 644-647). Occlusion of capillaries and small vessels lead to acute or chronic tissue injury.
This leads to further problems related to homeostasis which continues to perpetuate a cycle of local hypoxia, degeneration of more erythrocytes, and more suckling which continue to cause irreversible cell membrane damage (Lewis et al. , 2014, up. 644-647). Unless you're directly quoting you only need to address the authors once According to Lewis et al. , ASS is xx or write your summary and add to the end of the paragraph (Lewis et al. , 2014 up. 644-647) since all your information is from 1 source. If your quoting directly from the source you need to enclose in "
Nursing Diagnoses Pain related to occlusion of small vessel by sickle cells as evidenced by severe pain in art. Knee and ankle. Altered tissue perfusion related to a decreased number of Orb's and decreased oxygenation as manifested by odyssey, tingling/numbness in ankle and knees. Activity Intolerance related to imbalance between oxygen supply and demand, as manifested by fatigue, odyssey,