Staphylococcus Aureus

Published: 2021-09-14 18:20:11
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Category: Infection, Health Care, Epidemiology

Type of paper: Essay

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In January 2008, a cluster of neonates with bullous impetigo in a hospital of northern Thailand was investigated. Medical records and working timetables of healthcare workers (HCWs) were reviewed. During an environmental study, bacteriological samples from HCWs and equipments were taken. The study resulted in 16 confirmed cases and 14 probable cases. The attack rate was 42%. Most cases had skin blisters (28 cases) followed by pustules (five cases) and exfoliation (three cases). The location of the lesion was the trunk (17 cases), neck (14 cases) or armpits (nine cases).
Nineteen cases had symptoms onset after discharge from hospital. Median age at onset was 4 days. The strain isolated from an infected newborn shared the same phage type as the contaminated equipment. Insufficient hand hygiene was an observed risk behavior of HCWs and visitors. Exposure to a nasal carrier of Staphylococcus aureus and ward sharing with a symptomatic case increased the risk of acquiring the infection. The outbreak ended abruptly after implementation of hand hygiene practices and equipment cleaning. (Eurosurveillance, 2008) What are the clinical symptoms, duration of the disease, and treatment if any? The clinical symptoms of a skin staph infection are boils and puss-filled accesses. These areas of the infection are commonly red, swollen and painful. Drainage of the infections is common practice.
When S aureus enters the blood stream it can spread to organs and cause serious infections, this is known as bacteremia or sepsis. Patients with underlying lung disease may develop staphylococcus pneumonia which causes an abscess formation in the ungs. Infection of the heart valves, also called endocarditis, can lead to heart failure. Staphylococcal food poisoning causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration. (MedicineNet, n. d. ) Minor skin infections may be treated with an antibiotic ointment or oral antibiotics. Serious and life-threatening illness may be treated with intravenous antibiotics depending on the particular staphylococcal strain. Some strains, such as MRSA, are resistant to many antibiotics. What steps can be taken to prevent further outbreaks?

Include individual as well as environmental precautions and methods. There is not a vaccine available against Staphylococcus aureus since bacteria are so widespread. But there are common hygiene practices that can reduce the risk of developing staph infections. Thoroughly washing hands is the best defense against germs. If you have a cut or wound, keep it clean and covered with sterile bandages until they heal completely. Avoid sharing personal items such as towels, sheets, razors and clothing. Women that use tampons can reduce their risk by changing tampons frequently.
Hospitals can reduce transmission of staphylococcal aureus and MRSA by ensuring proper hygiene is a priority with all healthcare workers. They can also disinfect surfaces that are handled by healthcare workers, patients and visitors daily. A study was done to test the growth rate of staphylococci on stainless steel and brass. The results of this study showed the growth of the bacteria to be lower on the brass covered hardware. This could be a change hospitals can make to help reduce the spread of staphylococcus.

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